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AN ATLAS OF CURRENT AFFAIRS 



AN ATLAS OF 
CURRENT AFFAIRS 


by 

J. F. HORRABIN 


LONDON 

VICTOR GOLLANCZ LTD 
14 Henrietta Street Covent Garden 
1936 



First published April 1334 
Second impression May 1334 
Third impression October 1334 
Fourth impression (new and revised edition ) September 1 
Fifth impression (further revised) August 1336 




i 

6 - 3 - 



Printed in Great Britain by 

Hise Camelot Press Ltd*, London and Southampton 



PREFACE 


No one can read a newspaper intelligently to- 
day without some background knowledge of world 
geography. And the ordinary reference atlas, which 
perforce aims at crowding as many facts as possible 
into a minimum of space without regard to particular 
events, is not perhaps the ideal source for such 
knowledge. 

This book is not intended as a substitute for a 
reference atlas. Its purpose is to be merely a short 
and simple guide to key facts and key places in the 
world of to-day. The maps in it are accordingly 
exercises in “ the art of leaving out.” Each of them 
is designed to illustrate a particular point ; not to set 
down every sort and kind of fact about the country 
or the area with which it deals. The reader is hereby 
urged to make his own marginal additions as and 
when his newspaper gives him additional inform- 
ation. 

The maps have been grouped in seven main 
divisions— Europe, the Mediterranean area, the Far 
East, etc. But the world to-day is interdependent ; 
,and various cross-references will indicate the impossi- 
bility of studying any one problem in vacuo. 


In common with all students of international 
affairs I am indebted to the maps and summaries of 
Dr. I. Bowman’s The New World . ; and, for the 


5 



PREFACE 


European section of this book, to Mr. and Mrs. 
Cole’s invaluable Europe To-day. 

I have to express my grateful thanks to Margaret 
McWilliams for her untiring assistance in collecting 
and collating material from a mountain of daily and 
weekly j oumals. 

J. F. H. 


6 



CONTENTS 


Preface 


page 

5 

EUROPE 



I 

The Treaty of Versailles 


13 

2 

Germany’s Western Frontier 


15 

3 

Germany’s Neighbours 


17 

4 

Germany’s Eastern Frontier : 

the 



“ Corridor ” 


19 

5 

Russia’s Post-War Losses 


21 

6 

The Baltic States 


23 

7 

Poland’s Eastern Frontier 


25 

8 

The Ukraine 


27 

9 

Austria-Hungary’s War Losses 


29 

IO 

Austria 


3i 

ii 

The Little Entente 


33 

12 

Hungary 


35 

J 3 

Italy, Yugo-Slavia and the Adriatic 

37 

14 

The Little Entente : (i) Yugo-Slavia 

39 

*5 

Nationalities in Yugo-Slavia 


41 

16 

The Little Entente : (ii) Czecho- 



Slovakia 


43 

*7 

The Little Entente : (iii) Rumania 

45 

18 

Bulgaria 


47 


7 



CONTENTS 


EUROPE— 


19 Greece page 49 

20 Minorities in Eastern and Central 



Europe 

51 

21 

New European States 

53 

22 

Inland States of Europe 

55 

23 

Ireland 

57 

24 

Disruption in Spain 

59 

25 

Nationalities in Belgium 

61 

MEDITERRANEAN AND NEAR EAST 

26 

Conflicting Interests in the Mediter- 


• 

ranean 

63 

27 

Turkey’s War Losses 

65 

28 

Turkey 

67 

29 

British Interests in the Near East 

69 

30 

France and the Western Mediter- 



ranean 

71 

3 1 

Italy and the Red Sea 

73 

32 

Abyssinia 

75 

33 

The Conquests of Ibn Saud 

77 

34 

Iraq ; Oil and Communications 

79 

35 

Jewish Settlements in Palestine 

81 

36 

Iran : Oil and Railways 

83 


8 



CONTENTS 


JAPAN AND THE FAR EAST 

37 The Powers in the Far East page 85 

38 The Empire of Japan 87 

39 The Ways into China 89 

40 The Lands of the Mongols 91 

41 Japan and Russia 93 

42 The Break-up of China 95 

43 The Nanking Government 97 

RUSSIA 

44 The New Russia 99 

45 Political Divisions of the New Russia roi 

46 Political Divisions of European Russia 1 03 

47 The Caucasus 105 

48 Western Siberia and Turkestan 107 

49 Nationalities in Central Asia 109 

50 Central Asian Frontiers and Afghan- 

istan hi 

51 Far Eastern Russia 1 1 3 


INDIA AND THE INDIAN OCEAN 
52 Cross-Roads of the Far East : Singa- 


pore 1 15 

53 British Malaya 117 

54 The Problem of the Indian States 1 19 

55 India : the Communal Problem 12 1 

56 Burma : Siam 123 

57 Tibet 125 

Ba 


9 



CONTENTS 


AFRICA 

58 Independent States in Africa page 

59 Germany’s Lost Possessions in Africa 

60 Britain in Africa 

61 The Rhodesias 

62 The South African Protectorates 

63 British East Africa 

64 Liberia 

AMERICA 

65 The Negro Problem in the United 

States 

66 The United States and the Caribbean 

67 Cuba 

68 Panama and Nicaragua 

6q Rival Interests in the Pacific 

70 “ Yanqui Imperialismo ” in Latin 

America 

71 The Bolivia-Paraguay War 

72 Bolivia 

73 Nationalities in South America 

74 Newfoundland 

Index 


10 



MAPS 



TvtcnuzL-lavul 



12 









THE TREATY OF 
VERSAILLES 

Any stud y of present-day international problems 
in Europe must begin with the Peace Treaties of 
1919. These Treaties made territorial changes in 
Europe greater than any that had occurred for 
centuries. They were professedly designed, in accord- 
ance with the ideals of President Wilson, to make 
frontiers coincide more nearly with nationalities. 
But in so doing they frequently ignored the economic 
realities of the twentieth-century world. 

Let us begin with the Treaty of Versailles, “ the cor- 
ner-stone of the present European political structure.” 

On her western frontier Germany had to cede the 
districts of Eupen and Malmedy to Belgium, and 
the provinces of Alsace and Lorraine to France. In 
addition, the Saar Basin, bordering on Lorraine, 
was placed under the administration of a League of 
Nations Commission for 15 years. (The plebiscite of 
the inhabitants taken in February, 1935, gave a 
90*08 per cent vote for return to Germany.) 

In the north, Germany ceded part of Schleswig to 
Denmark (which had been neutral in the war) . 

On the east, Memel Land, to the north of East 
Prussia, was at first placed under League of Nations 
control, but, later (1923), handed by the Allied 
Powers to Lithuania ; the major part of the provinces 
of West Prussia and Posen went to form part of the 
new state of Poland ; as did also part of Upper 
Silesia (the exact area of this last being decided by 
plebiscite later). A further small portion of Silesia 
was allotted to Czechoslovakia. 


13 



MAP 2 









GERMANY’S WESTERN 
FRONTIER 


The problem of Germany’s western frontier is 
essentiaUy the problem of an area economically and 
geographically a unit, but divided by national 
frontiers which bear no relation to the basic economic 
facts of the present day. The Rhine, its tributary the 
Moselle, and the Meuse and Scheldt rivers are the 
natural lines of communication in the great coal and 
iron area of northern France, Belgium, the Ruhr, 
the Saar and Lorraine. There is no natural frontier 
anywhere in this region ; and, as a matter of fact, 
of course, frontiers here have been constantly 
shifting for centuries, long before the days of coal 
and iron. The Rhine itself is now, on one bank at 
least, a French river for the ioo miles from Basle to 
beyond Strasbourg. Then for some 300 miles it is 
German ; while its mouth lies in Holland. The only 
possible ultimate solution of the problems of this 
region would seem to be the entire abolition of 
national frontiers, and its organisation as a single 
economic area. 

The Rhineland, the territory lying between the 
left bank of the Rhine and the Franco-Belgian 
frontier, was made a demilitarised zone by the 
Versailles Treaty. In the spring of 1936 it was re- 
occupied by German troops. 


15 



SWKD1W 



6 









GERMANY’S 

NEIGHBOURS 


The declared Nazi aim of uniting under the 
flag of the Fatherland all the Germans of Central 
Europe — Hitler himself has spoken vaguely but 
provocatively of realising Germany’s “ ideal fron- 
tiers 55 — -is inevitably a cause of considerable alarm 
to Germany’s less powerful neighbours. There are 
German minorities in Holland, Switzerland, Czecho- 
slovakia, Hungary, Rumania, Poland and Lithuania. 
In addition, of course, Austria is a German state. 
Nazi propaganda, in some cases backed by organised 
Nazi parties, has been extensively carried on in 
many of these countries. The present tendency of 
German foreign policy is apparently to accept the 
status quo on the Western frontier, while regarding 
such questions as the position of Memel and Danzig, 
and the Polish Corridor, as matters for early rectifi- 
cation. Nazi spokesmen have also enlarged upon the 
possibility of detaching the Ukraine from the 
U.S.S.R. — whether as a subsidiary German state, 
or as the price to be paid to Poland for the retroces- 
sion of the Corridor to Germany, is not clear. 


17 



MAP 4 











RUSSIA’S POST-WAR 
LOSSES 


Russia, although not one of the defeated central 
powers, lost very considerable territories in Europe 
after the war. As a result of the revolution she was 
not represented at Versailles and the victorious Allies 
proceeded to confirm the establishment of certain 
new states created by the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk 
which, early in 1918, Germany had forced on Russia. 
In the north, Finland ; then the old Baltic Provinces, 
which became Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania ; an 
extensive area to Poland ; and finally (though this 
was not ceded by the Treaty and has, in fact, never 
been ratified by Russia), 1 the province of Bessarabia 
was seized by Rumania. It should be noted that 
Russia’s Baltic coast line (i.e., her direct communica- 
tion with northern Europe) was thus cut down to the 
relatively small strip north and west of Leningrad. 

1 The U.SJS.R, 1ms however pledged itself to make no attempt 
to retake the province by force of arms. 


21 



MAP 6 




THE BALTIC STATES 


Since the Russian Revolution of 1905 there had 
been a Separatist Movement in the Russian Baltic 
provinces of Estonia, Livonia, and Courland. The 
Czarist Government, intent on the development of 
the important ports of Reval, Riga and Libau, used 
every kind of drastic method in its attempt to Russify 
the provinces. The whole area was in the occupation 
of the Germans by the beg innin g of 1918, when 
Lenin’s Government signed the Treaty of Brest- 
Litovsk. Anxious to maintain the cordon sanitaire 
against Bolshevism, the Allies confirmed the German 
creation of the new states of Estonia (the old pro- 
vince of Estonia and the larger half of Livonia) ; 
Latvia (the rest of Livonia and the whole of Cour- 
land) ; and Lithuania (the province of Kovno and 
the greater part of the province of Vilna — see also 
next map). As the map shows, the ports of Reval 
and Riga should be (as they once were) the sea 
outlets and rail heads of very considerable areas of 
Western Russia. 

Since their victory in the Saar plebiscite the 
German Nazis have concentrated on tide re-gaining 
of Memel ( cf. map 1). The trial by a Lithuanian 
court of German Memellanders for alleged treason- 
able conspiracy has greatly exacerbated relations 
between Lithuania and Germany. Meantime (Sept. 

1 934) 5 the three Baltic states unified their foreign 
policy by a special treaty signed at Geneva. 


23 








POLAND’S EASTERN 
FRONTIER 


The supreme council at Versailles originally 
fixed the eastern frontier of Poland on a line (cf. 
map) running roughly north and south from Brest- 
Litovsk with Polish Ukraine (Eastern Galicia) as an 
autonomous area under Poland’s sovereignty ; but 
in December 1920, after the Russo-Polish war of 
that year, the frontier was pushed much further 
eastward by the cession of very considerable addi- 
tional areas of White Russia and Ukraine to Poland. 
The original line approximated to the eastern border 
of the predominantly Polish population. The new 
area contains large numbers of White Russians and 
Ukrainians, as well as Jews ; and under Pilsudski’s 
regime pogroms took place. Petidons for autonomy 
for Polish Ukraine (Eastern Galicia) have been 
presented to the League of Nations but the Council 
of the League has so far taken no action. 

In 1920 also a Polish army raided Lithuania, 
seizing Vilna, the capital, and adding to Poland the 
“ corridor 55 of territory north of the Niemen, thus 
driving a wedge between Lithuania and the U.S.S.R. 
The Lithuanians have never acquiesced in this 
particular piece of brigandage and have retaliated 
by closing the Niemen and the port of Memel to 
the Poles. The League of Nations has unsuccessfully 
attempted a solution of the dispute. 

Ca 


^5 



Smolerusik 


MAP 8 



la Hon. 





THE UKRAINE 


Th e Ukraine 5 the belt of territory inhabited by 
the Ukrainians (Ruthenians, or “ Little Russians ”), 
extends across south European Russia, eastern 
Poland and eastern Czechoslovakia, touching also 
Rumania (Bukovina and parts of Bessarabia). The 
Russian part of it was constituted an independent 
state by the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk (1918), was over- 
run by various “ white 35 invaders and “ nationalist 53 
leaders after the Russian Revolution, was recon- 
quered by the Red Armies in 1919-20, and in 1923 
the Ukrainian Socialist Soviet Republic became a 
constituent member of the U.S.S.R. It is a vitally 
important part of the Soviet economic system, in- 
cluding as it does the most fertile agricultural land 
in Russia — the black earth belt ; as well as the great 
coalfield of Donetz, the ironfield of Krivoi Rog, the 
important industrial centres of Kiev and Kharkov, 
and the great electrical generating station of 
Dneiprostroi [cf. maps 44-46). Its coast, with the 
ports of Odessa, Rostov, and Novorossisk, is Russia’s 
most important seaboard. 

The Ukrainian Nationalist Movement now only 
exists among exiles in Western Europe and America. 


27 




28 








AUSTRIA-HUNGARY’S 
WAR LOSSES 


When the Austro-Hungarian monarchy was broken 
up by the 1919 Treaties 1 its population of 51 millions 
was divided up between seven states. 6|- millions 
only were left within the frontiers of the new Austria, 
8 millions in Hungary. Galicia, north of the Car- 
pathians, went to Poland ; Bohemia, Moravia and 
Northern Hungary formed the new state of Czecho- 
slovakia. Eastern Hungary, with the province of 
Transylvania, went to Rumania ; the Southern 
Tyrol and Istrian Peninsula to Italy, and Croatia, 
Dalmatia and Bosnia-Herzegovina were added to 
Serbia to form the kingdom of the Serbs, Croats and 
Slovenes, later called Yugo-Slavia. Austria and 
Hungary thus both became inland states ; and the 
Danube, which for 700 miles of its upper course had 
been the main artery of a politically unified territory, 
now flows in that same area through four separate 
sovereign states. 

1 Treaty of St. Germain with Austria ; Treaty of Trianon with 
Hungary. 


29 



CZECHO-S LOVAK1A* 


MAP i o 



30 


Mmu Railways 






AUSTRIA 


The newAustria consists of a capital city with 
a population of two millions, and attached to it a 
small, mainly mountainous, territory with another 
4-| million people. This is an obviously impossible 
disproportion between a capital city and its country, 
and the uneconomic character of this treaty-made 
arrangement has been made clear again and again 
during the past 14 years, when the League of Nations 
or various national banks have had to step in to save 
Austria from complete bankruptcy. The difficulties 
of the position were accentuated by the fact that the 
majority of the population of industrial and trading 
Vienna was militantly Socialist, while the peasants of 
the countryside were Catholic and Conservative. 
The population is 97 per cent German-speaking, of 
the same race, speech and culture as its neighbours 
of the north in the German Reich. 

Austria’s geographical position between Nazi 
Germany and Fascist Italy inevitably lays her open 
to powerful influences from north and south. Her 
independence is now fully guaranteed by Britain, 
France and Italy. 


3 * 



MAP ii 



32 






THE LITTLE ENTENTE 


T h r e e of the states created or enlarged by the 
break-up of the Austro-Hungarian Empire — Czecho- 
slovakia, Yugo-Slavia and Rumania 1 — formed them- 
selves soon after the war into the Little Entente. 
In February, 1933* they made between themselves 
a new and more binding Treaty, pledging themselves 
to follow a common foreign policy, setting up a per- 
manent Council consisting of the three Ministers of 
Foreign Affairs, and establishing an Economic 
Council which would aim at the unification of their 
railways and of uniformity of customs duties. All 
three states are — naturally — implacably opposed to 
any revision of the Treaties, and a main point of 
their foreign policy has always been the prevention 
of any Hapsburg restoration in Hungary. They are 
all Danubian countries and, geographically, Hun- 
gary (as a glance at the map makes clear) occupies 
a key position in relation to them, since she con- 
trols the strip of the Danube and the main rail lines 
which link Czechoslovakia in the north with Yugo- 
slavia and Rumania in the south. 


1 Cf. following maps. 

33 



MAP 12 



34 


3 , 00 Mies 





HUNGARY 


The new Hungary is a monarchy with a vacant 
throne, the nominal head of the Government being a 
Regent, Admiral Horthy. This is an outward and 
visible sign of Hungary’s refusal to accept the deci- 
sions of the 1919 Treaties. Her Government has 
consistently attacked these Treaties and again and 
again declared its intention of altering their terms 
by force whenever opportunity may arise. Nearly a 
third of the total number of Magyars were left out- 
side the new Hungarian frontiers — in Rumania 
(Transylvania), along the southern borders of 
Czechoslovakia, and in Yugo-Slavia (the Banat). 
The demands of Hungarian spokesmen include, as 
well as an extension of Hungary’s frontiers to bring 
in the Magyars of Czechoslovakia and the Banat, the 
setting up of an autonomous Transylvania, and 
plebiscites to decide the future of the Croats in 
Yugo-Slavia, the Austrians of the Burgenland and 
the Ukrainians of eastern Czechoslovakia. 


35 




36 





ITALY, YUGO-SLAVIA 
AND THE ADRIATIC 


Italy is brought into opposition to the Little En- 
tente from her desire for complete control of the 
Adriatic and her consequent hostility to Yugo-Slav 
development on the Dalmatian coast. By the Treaty 
of 1919 Italy gained the Austrian port of Trieste and 
later seized Fiume. The Treaty of Rapallo (1920) 
gave her the port of Zara and the island of Lagosta, 
She also exercises a virtual protectorate over Albania, 
which was made an independent state after the 
Balkan War of 1913, largely in order to keep Yugo- 
slavia (then Serbia) from the Adriatic coast-line 
which she has since attained. The Treaty of Tirana 
(1926) gave Italy the right of intervention in Al- 
banian affairs. The harbour of Valona, immediately 
opposite the heel of the Italian cc boot,” is obviously 
of first-class strategic importance to Italy. A Society 
for the Economic Development of Albania is con- 
trolled by Italian banks, and military roads have 
been constructed right up to the Yugo-Slav frontier. 
The position of Albania in relation to Italy and 
the Adriatic Sea may appropriately be compared to 
that of Cuba in relation to the United States and 
the Caribbean. Italian— Yugo-Slav relations have 
considerably improved since the rapprochement 
between Italy and France. 


37 




38 




THE LITTLE ENTENTE: 
(i) YUGO-SLAVIA 


The new state of Yugo-Slavia has realised the 
old Serbian dream of an Adriatic coast-line ; but the 
advantages of this are severely limited by certain 
geographical facts. Western Yugo-Slavia is moun- 
tainous and there is thus a formidable barrier be- 
tween the interior of the country and the coast-line. 
Of the two main railways which cross it, the northern 
branch leads to Fiume, now in Italian hands, (the 
Yugo-Slavs have been allotted the suburb of Susak); 
the southern branch going to Split (Spalato.) The 
country’s main river system, the Danube, and its 
tributaries, the Save, Drave, and Morava, also lead 
eastwards, away from the Adriatic. The Drin Valley, 
a means of access through south central Yugo- 
slavia, runs through Albania and hence is blocked 
by Italian opposition. The Vardar Valley, running 
south to the Aegean, is closed by Greece’s possession 
of Salonika. 


39 




40 




NATIONALITIES in 
YUGO-SLAVIA 


Yugoslavia, the Kingdom of the Serbs, Croats 
and Slovenes, was in 1919 formed out of the old 
Serbia (which had already been extended down the 
Vardar valley after the Balkan Wars, 19112-13) 
plus the Slavonic provinces of Austria-Hungary 
(Croatia-Slavonia, Bosnia and Herzegovina) and 
the Kingdom of Montenegro. From the outset the 
Serbs tended to regard these other areas as subor- 
dinate provinces, to be administered by a centralised 
government at Belgrade ; an attitude resolutely 
opposed by the National Committees of the ex- 
Austrian provinces. The Croats in particular — more 
industrialised and urbanised than the Serbs (they 
are also Catholics while the Serbs are of the Ortho- 
dox Church) — demanded autonomy. 

Years of internal struggle were cut short by the late 
King Alexander’s coup d'etat in 1929, and the estab- 
lishment of a new constitution based on a specially 
designed <c revised 53 democracy with only one 
National party, and the monarch as dictator. The 
Regency set up after the assassination of Alexander 
has to face the problem of reconciling Croatian 
claims with the unity of the Yugo-Slavian state. 
(See also map 18, Bulgaria, for the Macedonian 
question.) 

Da 


41 



MAP 1 6 



42 


svPM 009 





THE LITTLE ENTENTE: 
(ii) CZECHOSLOVAKIA 


By far the most industrially developed (and 
democratic) of the three countries of the Little 
Entente is Czechoslovakia. With the exception of a 
small district of Upper Silesia ceded by Germany, it 
is formed entirely out of territory which was formerly 
part of Austria-Hungary ; including, in Bohemia, 
the most densely populated region of the Empire. 
Between 60 and 70 per cent of the total population 
are Czechs and Slovaks ; 20 per cent are Germans 
(the Nazi Party made sensational gains in the 
elections of May 1935) ; while Magyars and Ruthen- 
ians make up close on 10 per cent. 

The province of Ruthenia (at the extreme east of 
the country — it is further away from Prague than is 
Hamburg) is neither Czech nor Slovak, and was 
added to Czechoslovakia in order to provide terri- 
torial contact with Rumania, and complete the ring 
round Hungary. As this area consisted mainly of the 
great estates of Magyar nobles, its inclusion in 
Czechoslovakia forms one of the bitterest com- 
plaints of the Hungarian governing class. Its in- 
habitants are peasants, with a quite different 
standard of living to that of the majority of the 
workers of the rest of the country. 

(Cf. map 22 for Czechoslovakia’s communications 
with the sea.) 


43 




44 


’#913) k 








THE LITTLE ENTENTE: 
(iii) RUMANIA 


Rumania, which more than doubled its size and 
population after the War — and which naturally, 
therefore, is fervently opposed to any revision of 
Treaties— is predominantly a nation of peasants. It 
includes very large racial minorities, including half- 
a -mi 11 ion Ukrainians, the same number of Germans 
and of Jews, more than a million Magyars, over 
200,000 Bulgars, and nearly the same number of 
Turks and Tartars. The Ukrainians are for the most 
part inhabitants of Bessarabia, the Russian province 
which Rumania seized in 1919 (cf. map 5), and of 
Bukovina, before the War a crown province of 
Austria. The Magyars occupy considerable areas of 
Transylvania, and there are numbers of them also in 
the Banat. 

The southern part of the Dobrudja was taken by 
Rumania from Bulgaria after the second Balkan 
War (1913). This area is Bulgarian and Turkish in 
population. The Jewish question, which has had a 
long history in Rumania, recently flared up again 
with the growth of a Fascist movement deriving 
its inspiration largely from Nazi ideas. 

Rumania’s chief exports (when the state of world 
trade makes exports possible) are wheat and oil. 
The principal oilfields lie along the southern slopes 
of the Transylvanian Alps. 


45 



MAP 18 



GREECE 







BULGARIA 


Bulgaria has been described as “ the Hungary 
of the Balkans.” Like Hungary, she wants Treaty 
revision ; and she has double cause for resentment 
since, as well as 1918, she remembers 1913, when the 
fruits of the wars in which Turkey was defeated by 
the Balkan allies went in the main to her neighbours. 
In 1912 she was the most powerful of the Balkan 
states. In 1918 she stood alone, weakest of them all. 
In 1913 she had to acquiesce in Serbia’s acquisition 
of Macedonia, while Greece occupied Salonika, and 
Rumania, in the north, took the southern Dobrudja. 
She did indeed gain a foothold on the coast of the 
Aegean ; but in 1918 this also was lost. 

Her foreign policy since the War has been largely 
dictated by the Macedonian <c irredentist 55 organisa- 
tion whose dominant idea is a permanent blood- 
feud with Yugo-Slavia. But it is probable that fear 
of the “ Drang nach Osten ” aims of a Nazi Germany 
may encourage a more conciliatory attitude on the 
part of her neighbours of the Little Entente. 

The population of Bulgaria, like Rumania, is 
mainly peasant ; and in both countries repressive 
measures against a bitterly discontented peasantry 
have been a feature of political life during the past 
few years. A somewhat bewildering succession of 
coups by Army officers and counter-cow^ by King 
Boris have resulted in the promise of a new consti- 
tution. 


47 




4 8 






GREECE 


Greece — ancient and modem — may be said to 
consist rather of the coasts and islands of a sea, the 
Aegean, than a single block of mainland territory. 
After the Balkan wars against Turkey (1912-13) she 
extended her hold on that sea by acquiring part of 
its northern coast-line, including Salonika. Follow- 
ing the Great War the Allies increased her hold again 
by carrying her territory right up to within a few 
miles of Constantinople ; and established her on the 
eastern (Asia Minor) coast of the Aegean by giving 
her Smyrna and its hinterland, as well as several of 
the islands. Smyrna and Eastern Thrace were lost 
after her disastrous war with Turkey (1921-22). 
During recent years Greek Governments have estab- 
lished amicable relations with Turkey, beginning 
with the organised exchange (with League of Nations 
financial assistance) of their respective nationals 
from one territory to another, and culminating in an 
explicit Pact of Friendship (1933), which guaranteed 
the inviolability of common frontiers and provided 
for common action on all international questions. 

Greek nationalist ambitions are still affronted by 
the Italian occupation of Rhodes (an important 
naval base) and the Dodecanese islands ; and by 
Britain’s continued hold on Cyprus (cf. map 26, 
“ Mediterranean Problems ”). 


49 



MAP 20 



50 

















MINORITIES IN 
EASTERN AND 
CENTRAL EUROPE 


The War and tie Treaties, with the ensuing tri- 
umph of various small nationalities — previously 
min orities — enormously increased the dangers of the 
minorities problem in Central and Eastern Europe. 
An ethnographical map of the area shows a tangled 
patchwork of races and languages. The Treaties 
themselves, as well as certain special Minorities 
Treaties concluded by the victorious Allies with 
Poland, Czechoslovakia, Yugo-Slavia, Rumania 
and Greece, give League of Nations guarantees to 
min orities. In addition, certain states have entered 
into direct engagements with the League to observe 
similar minority rights. The conditions under which 
minorities may lodge a complaint with the Council 
of the League are, however, hedged about with many 
delays and formalities ; and the League has accord- 
ingly but seldom intervened to question the “ sover- 
eign 55 rights of any state concerned. A case in point 
is Polish Ukraine (cf. map 7) which has several 
times unsuccessfully petitioned the League for the 
autonomy promised it under the original Treaty. 

(N.B. (i) The map shows only the principal 
minorities in each case, (ii) The word u Ukrainian ” 
covers the Ruthenians of Poland and Rumania.) 


5 * 



MAP 2 i 



52 




NEW EUROPEAN 
STATES 


NoTEVENin those parts of the world where fron- 
tiers are arbitrarily set up or altered by all-conquering 
alien imperialisms did the War make greater changes 
than in Europe itself; where the Treaties of 1919 
set up six new independent sovereign states. This was 
done ostensibly on the principle of nationality, 
though the “ rights ” of these smaller peoples, con- 
veniently for the Allies, coincided with the need to 
break up defeated Powers — and guard against 
revolutionary ones. It will be noted that four of the 
six — Finland, Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania — and a 
large part of the fifth — Poland — were formerly 
Russian territory ; while the sixth — Czechoslovakia 
— was part of pre-war Austria-Hungary. 

The first five have access to the Baltic Sea, though 
Poland’s coast-line was contrived by a territorial 
arrangement (the “ Corridor ”) which has in it 
plentiful potentialities of further trouble. The sixth, 
Czechoslovakia, is a land-locked state whose 
waterway communication with the outer world must 
needs be by rivers (cf. next map). 


53 



MAP 22 




INLAND STATES 
OF EUROPE 


Before the War there were but two inland 
states in Europe — Switzerland and Serbia. The 
Treaties added three more — Austria, Czecho- 
slovakia and Hungary. (And it should be noted that 
Russia’s western coast-line was cut down to the small 
strip on the Gulf of Finland.) 

Waterway communications being essential to a 
state, certain of the main rivers of Europe took on a 
new — and international — importance. Chief of these 
are the Rhine, Elbe and Oder, all largely German 
rivers ; and the Danube which, though it rises in 
German territory, is a waterway for the countries 
lying to the south of Germany. All these rivers are 
now subject to some measure of international control. 
Thus Switzerland has been given special rights of 
navigation on the Rhine, and Czechoslovakia on 
the Elbe and Oder (Hamburg, at the mouth of the 
former being Czechoslovakia’s chief northern port of 
export). 

The Danube is under the control of a European 
Commission consisting — in accordance with the bad 
old principle of intervention by the great Powers in 
Balkan affairs — of four national delegates, only one 
of them from a Danubian country — Rumania ; the 
others representing Britain, France and Italy. 


55 




5® 





IRELAND 


T* he division of Ireland into two separate areas, 
the Irish Free State and Northern Ireland, was an 
attempt to solve a particularly obstinate “ minorities 
problem.” The Protestant minority of the north-east 
comer refused to j oin in the demand of the Catholic- 
Nationalist majority ‘for separation from Great 
Britain. They were accordingly given a Parliament 
of their own, as well as representation in the British 
Parliament. The Free State was accorded dominion 
status, but the right" of secession from the Empire 
was denied to it. 

Ireland’s economic problems are aggravated by 
these fierce political nationalisms and anti-national- 
isms. In the first place, nearly a third of the total 
population and the most important industrial area 
is cut off from the Free State. In the second, the 
Free State Government’s main problem — of pro- 
viding (particularly now that emigration to America 
has been virtually stopped) for the needs of a growing 
population in a preponderantly agricultural state — 
is rendered still more difficult by a continuance of 
the historic quarrel with Britain and the consequent 
loss of the British market for Irish exports. Mr. de 
Valera’s plan is to make Ireland a self-contained and 
self-sufficient economic unit. To do this he proposes 
to break up the big farms and cattle-ranches of the 
centre and south, and hand over half-a-million acres 
to peasant farmers. s< Land hunger 55 still remains 
the dominant fact in internal Irish politics. 

Ea 57 



MAP 24 




DISRUPTION IN 
SPAIN 


The division of the Iberian Peninsula into river 
valleys and plateaux separated by high mountain 
barriers has always operated against unity in Spain ; 
and in the political turmoil which preceded and has 
followed the ending of the Spanish monarchy and 
the establishment of a republic, various separatist 
movements have played their part. The Basques in 
the north and the Catalans on the eastern (Mediter- 
ranean) coast have aimed at, and to a greater or less 
extent achieved, some degree of independence. 

But the separatist movements have more recently 
been merged in the struggle of social forces for 
dominance in Spain. The bourgeois republic failed 
either to solve the grievances of the mass of the pea- 
santry, or to wrest political and economic power from 
the land-owning aristocracy. A compromise between 
the Church, the aristocrats and the bourgeoisie 
resulted in a Government which ignored separatist 
claims, and crushed a working-class revolt in the 
Asturias with unprecedented savagery. The more 
recent electoral victory of the Popular Front has led 
to armed counter-revolution, led by ecclesiastics and 
Army officers, with legionaries and native troops 
from Morocco imported to aid them in their effort 
to put down constitutional government in the 
Peninsula. 


59 




6o 











NATIONALITIES 
IN BELGIUM 


The quarrel between the Walloons, or French- 
speaking Belgians, and the Flemings, whose language 
is a version of Dutch, was embittered during the War 
years when some of the Flemish leaders worked with 
the Germans, then occupying Belgium, to form an 
independent Flemish state under German protection. 
This action on the part of a small group led the 
Walloons afterwards to accuse the Flemings in 
general of disloyalty to the Belgian state. The dispute 
was recently revived when the question of the re- 
appointment of government officials who had been 
dismissed for “unpatriotic conduct 35 during the War 
resulted in an acute division within the Belgian 
Cabinet itself. The Flemings have been successful in 
securing official recognition for the Flemish tongue, 
and the University of Ghent has been cc Flam- 
mandised . 55 

The map also illustrates a problem which was for 
some time the source of some friction between 
Holland and Belgium — the control of the left bank 
of the Scheldt. The present frontier puts the Dutch 
on both sides of the river estuary, and for the greater 
security of the port of Antwerp the Belgians de- 
manded that this should be altered {cf. map 2). 

61 



MAP 26 










CONFLICTING 
INTERESTS IN THE 
MEDITERRANEAN 


Since the “ opening-up ” of Africa by the Powers 
and in particular since the cutting of the Suez Canal, 
the Mediterranean has become the centre of various 
competing national interests. To France, direct 
communication with her north African empire is 
vital. Italy, too, has her interests in Tripoli and — via 
Suez — in her colonial possessions on the Red Sea ; 
she, too (as already noted, map 13), seeks undisputed 
control of the Adriatic. From west to east of the sea 
runs the British high-road to India, with its key- 
points at Gibraltar, Malta, Cyprus, and Suez. Greece 
resents the Italian occupation of Rhodes and the 
Dodecanese islands, and the British occupation of 
Cyprus. Russia is concerned in the “ balance of 
power 55 in the eastern Mediterranean, since the 
Straits (Bosporus and Dardanelles) leading from the 
Black Sea are the sea-outlet to her whole southern 
coast-line. 















TURKEY’S WAR LOSSES 


The Balkan Wars (1912-13) resulted in the 
ending of Turkish overlordship of other races in 
Europe. The settlement after the Great War ended 
also her rule over the Arabs of Syria, Mesopotamia 
and Arabia proper ; as well as her suzerainty over 
Egypt. Turkey’s population is now predominantly 
Turkish, her only minority problem being that of 
the Kurds who dwell in the mountain country round 
about the head waters of the Tigris and Euphrates 
(and who extend also into northern Syria and Iraq). 

Syria was made a French mandate ; Palestine, 
Transjordania and Iraq, British (Iraq later attaining 
independence). The patchwork of Arab kingdoms, 
emirates and chieftainships set up — or bolstered up 
— by the Allies further south has been considerably 
modified by the conquests of Ibn Saud {cf. map 33). 

The post-war treaties made the Straits (Bosporus 
and Dardanelles) a demilitarised zone; but by a 
new agreement made in 1936 Turkey resumes her 
sovereign rights in this area. 

65 



MAP 28 



66 








TURKEY 


After having fought four wars in ten years 
— against Italy (in Tripoli) 1911--12, against the 
Balkan Allies, 1912, as one of Germany’s allies in the 
Great War, 1914-18, and against Greece, 1921-22 — 
Turkey has since settled down, under the dictator- 
ship of Mustapha Kemal, to peace through a mainly 
isolationist policy. Confined to Constantinople and 
its hinterland in Europe and to the vast uplands of 
the Anatolian Plateau, Kemal has resolutely worked 
for the internal development of Turkish territory. 
His plans include large schemes of road and rail 
development, including a Trans-Anatolian railway 
connecting the port of Samsoun on the Black Sea 
with Mersina on the Mediterranean, and another 
line which would connect Angora with the Russian 
frontier. (Several of the lines shown in the map as 
cc under construction 5J are now practically com- 
pleted.) Ever since the War the new Turkey has 
enjoyed the friendliest relations with the U.S.S.R. 
and more recently has made an alliance with its 
western neighbour — and ex-enemy — Greece (cf. map 
19, and, for Russian frontier, map 47). 

N.B. By Government decree the name of Con- 
stantinople has now been changed to Istanbul. 

67 




68 






BRITISH INTERESTS 
IN THE NEAR EAST 


The whole belt of territories bordering the 
eastern Mediterranean and lying between the Red 
Sea and the Persian Gulf are of ’vital concern to 
Britain since they command her most important - 
strategic highway — the short sea-way and air route 
to India and the Indian Ocean. It was this sea-route 
which was threatened by pre-war Germany’s plans 
for a Berlin-Bagdad railway, an overland route 
running across Turkey to the Persian Gulf. And 
because of imperial Britain’s interest in the inviol- 
ability of her main lines of communication, Egyptian 
Independence cannot be absolute and Ibn Saud’s 
approaches to Transjordan must be closely watched. 
The Turkish hold on this block of territory was, as 
we have already seen (cf. map 27), ended by the 
Great War. British dominance in this area is now 
threatened by the Italian conquest of Abyssinia, and 
the consequent strengthening of Italy’s position at 
the southern end of the Red Sea. 


69 



MAP 30 





FRANCE AND THE 

WESTERN 

MEDITERRANEAN 


Though her Syrian mandate carries her interests 
into the eastern Mediterranean, France’s main con- 
cern is the maintenance of uninterrupted communi- 
cations, at the western end of that sea, with her 
African empire. With the completion of her conquest 
of Morocco (excepting for the small Spanish zone, 
and the international zone of Tangier) and the 
addition to her equatorial territories (by mandate) 
of the Cameroons, previously a German colony, 
France’s African possessions extend from the Mediter- 
ranean coast nearly 3,000 miles southward, across 
the Sahara. And these vast territories are a source, 
not only of valuable raw materials, but of man- 
power. Madagascar, off the east coast of Africa, and 
Indo-China, in the Far East, are also French posses- 
sions ; but here, in Western and Central Africa, are 
concentrated France’s most important imperial 
interests, and the Mediterranean sea-link with them 
is consequently of the first importance to her. 


7i 



MAP 3 i 


2000 Mies 

_I 


72 







ITALY AND THE 
RED SEA 


Italy’s African possessions previous to 1935 
were Libya (Tripoli), a mainly desert area bordering 
Egypt; and Eritrea and Italian Somaliland, on the 
Red Sea and the Gulf of Aden. The position of the 
two last gave her a peculiar interest in the develop- 
ment of Abyssinia (see next map). 

Late in 1935 the invasion of that country was 
begun, and within six months the Italian forces 
moving southward from Eritrea overcame all resist- 
ance and occupied the Abyssinian capital. Mussolini 
has now declared Abyssinia to be a part of the 
Italian empire, and the King of Italy has assumed 
the title of Abyssinian Emperor. 

Fa 73 



MAP 32 









ABYSSINIA 


Italian relations with Abyssinia dated from 
the time, 50 years ago, when Italy occupied 
Massawa, the nucleus of the colony of Eritrea, and 
established a protectorate over a part of what later 
became the colony of Italian Somaliland. Ten years 
later, in 1895, an Italian invading army was routed 
at Adowa by the forces of the Emperor Menelik. 

The main fighting in the recent war of conquest 
took place in the northern area between Eritrea and 
the capital, Addis Ababa. Although some advance 
was made northward from the Italian Somaliland 
frontier, the greater part of the southern areas of the 
country are still (1936) uncontrolled if not actually 
unoccupied. An Abyssinian government is still in 
being in the mountain country in the extreme south- 
west. 


75 




76 










THE CONQUESTS OF 
IBN SAUD 


The disposition of Arab territories after the 
Great War established in the north, as we have 
noted (cf. map 27) , mandates divided between Britain 
and France. In Arabia proper the kingdom of the 
Hejaz (on the Red Sea coast) was to receive special 
British protection, and its ruler claimed overlord- 
ship of the rest of the peninsula. This arrangement 
was shattered by the rise to power of Ibn Saud, 
leader of the Wahabi sect of the Moslems and ruler 
of Nejd, in the interior. Before the War Ibn Saud 
had already conquered Hasa, on the Persian Gulf, 
from the Turks. After the War he rapidly extended 
his power by taking the chieftainships of Hail and 
Jauf, to the north, and actually raiding Trans- 
jordan ; and Asir, on the Red Sea, south of the 
Hejaz. In 1924-25 he conquered the Hejaz itself, 
thus consolidating his power from west to east of 
Arabia. The Yemen (attacked 1934) north of Aden 
on the Red Sea, as yet remains independent of his 
rule ; as do the Sultanate of Oman and the Hadra- 
maut, to the south — both of them under British 
protection. 

In 1927 a treaty was signed at Jidda between 
Britain and Ibn Saud, by which the former recog- 
nised the complete independence of Ibn Saud’s 
dominions. The name of the latter was in 1932 
changed from the “ Kingdom of the Hejaz and 
Nejd 35 to the “ Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. 55 


77 




78 





IRAQ,: 

OIL AND 

COMMUNICATIONS 


Two factors have given peculiar importance to 
the new state of Iraq created by the post-war settle- 
ment which ended Turkish rule over the Arabs : 
oil and British imperial communications. The 
Kirkuk oilfield, in the vilayet of Mosul, has proved 
to be of first-rate importance. France fought hard 
for the inclusion of the Mosul area in her Syrian 
mandate ; and has succeeded in her claim to a pro- 
portion of the oil produced, so that the great trans- 
desert pipeline now completed has a branch leading 
to the port of Tripoli, in Syria. The British section 
links Kirkuk with Haifa, in Palestine. 

The main British air-route to India and the east 
passes through Bagdad. Now, indeed, that the aero- 
plane has become a vital factor in imperial com- 
munications, the old land routes between the 
Mediterranean and the Indian Ocean, via Bagdad, 
have regained the importance they possessed before 
the discovery of the Cape route to the Indies. 

The British mandate over Iraq ended in 1932, 
when Iraq became a full member of the League of 
Nations ; but British air bases are still maintained 
in Iraq, and the Royal Air Force is a factor of con- 
siderable importance in the internal affairs of the 
country. 


79 



Jewish, owne3, 

lane t . . • SB 
jR aSlwagf 


J.T.H. 






JEWISH SETTLEMENTS 
IN PALESTINE 


British declarations during the Great 
War* on the one hand to the Jews — guaranteeing the 
establishment of a Jewish national home in Palestine 
— and on the other to the Arabs — promising the 
independence of all Arab territories — were difficult 
to reconcile ; as the Mandatory Power in Palestine 
has since on several occasions discovered. The 
present population of Palestine is a little over a 
million, of whom 73 per cent are Moslems and 17 
per cent Jews ; this latter figure being rather more 
than double what it was before the British mandatory 
government was established. About one-third of the 
Jewish population is settled on the land. The 
Zionist Organisation, which under the Mandate is 
recognised as the official Jewish Agency for Pales- 
tine, directly controls many of these settlements, 
which are situated in the main along the coast be- 
tween Jaffa and Acre, in the Esdraelon valley (south 
of Haifa-Nazareth) , and near the Sea of Galilee. 
The main problem of the administration is, of course, 
that of absorbing new Jewish immigrants without 
adversely affecting the existing Arab population — 
a task of enormous difficulty, as persistent Arab 
revolts in various parts of the country have made 
clear. 


81 



MAP 36 




IRAN — OIL AND 
RAILWAYS 

Before the Great War the independent 
sovereign state of Persia (now officially re-named 
Iran) was divided into Russian (northern) and 
British (southern) spheres of influence. But even 
earlier certain British interests had secured extensive 
rights over the greater part of the country. The 
D’Arcy concession (1901), which was the beginning 
of the Anglo-Persian Oil Company’s operations, 
gave exclusive rights to prospect for oil up to a line 
(shown in the map) running north-west and south- 
east from Tehran. 

In 1932 the Persian Government cancelled the 
concession ; which event was something of an inter- 
national incident, since the British Government is a 
shareholder in the Anglo-Persian Co. A new agree- 
ment (June, 1933) revised the financial terms of the 
concession, and cut down the territory to be ex- 
ploited by about half (the exact delimitation to be 
agreed upon later). Under the vigorous regime of 
Riza Shah Pahlevi Persia has also objected to the 
British protectorate over the Bahrein Islands in the 
Persian Gulf. 

Persia is almost a rail-less country. Lines from 
Russia (Caucasus), Iraq and Baluchistan cross the 
frontiers to Tabriz, Kasr-i-Sirin and Duzdab re- 
spectively. A railway running northwards from the 
Persian Gulf, alongside the oil pipeline, is to be 
continued to the Caspian Sea. 

83 




8 4 






THE POWERS IN THE 
FAR EAST 

The Far Eastern problem is the problem 
of China. That vast country', with its hard-working 
millions of peasant farmers, would in all probability 
have lost its independence as and when India did 
but for its greater distance from Europe. It was the 
coming of the steamship which brought China 
“ within range,” and began the process of her disso- 
lution. For the main ways into China were sea ways, 
a great mountain barrier cutting her off from the 
rest of Asia on the west, and Russia controlling the 
land approaches from the north. During the latter 
half of the 19th century and the earlier years of the 
20th, the great colonial Powers steadily encroached 
upon her borders and established themselves, for 
purposes of trade, in “ treaty ports ” within her 
actual territory. 

The map shows the grouping of the four main 
Powers : Japan — the “ Power on the spot 55 — estab- 
lished on the mainland in Korea and Manchukuo ; the 
United States in the Philippines 1 ; Britain at Hong- 
Kong, commanding the southern (Canton) gateway 
into China, and at Singapore, nearly 1,500 miles to 
the south ; France in Indo-Ghina. Russia, which in 
Czarist days had a special sphere of interest in 
Manchuria, is now cut off from direct contact with 
China by the Japanese occupation of that country. 

1 The position here is somewhat modified by the grant of inde- 
pendence (for economic reasons) to the Philippines ; but the U.S, 
retains control of foreign policy, and will presumably continue to 
regard the islands as an American sphere. 

85 




86 






THE EMPIRE OF JAPAN 


At the time when the great non- Asiatic Powers 
began to intervene in Far Eastern affairs the island 
empire of Japan was still a mediaeval feudal state. 
Within a generation she had remodelled her social 
system on European capitalist lines and equipped 
herself with the armaments which were the obvious 
hall-mark of western civilisation. 

The map illustrates her steady growth since she 
first took part in the race for “ expansion. 35 The 
island of Formosa was acquired after her war with 
China, 1894-95 5 ? OTt Arthur and the southern half 
of Sakhalin Island after the Russo-Japanese war, 
1904-5. Korea, whose independence she had pro- 
fessed to secure by the Chinese war, was annexed 
in 1910. 1 Japan was now established on the main- 
land. And in the meantime she had been consolidat- 
ing her position and “ rights 33 in southern Man- 
churia. 

After the Great War she was given the mandate 
for the ex-German Pacific islands north of the 
equator ; the strategic importance of which is due 
to their position athwart the direct sea-route from 
the United States to the Philippines, 

Her more recent expansion in Manchuria (now 
Manchukuo) is dealt with in succeeding maps. 

1 It is worth noting that the present status of Manchukuo, an 
“ independent ” state guaranteed by Japan — is precisely similar to 
that of Korea from 1895 to 1910. 

87 



MAP 39 


J^cmvtams 





THE WAYS INTO 
CHINA 


China’s most important lines of communication 
are her three great rivers : the Hwang-ho, or Yellow 
River in the north ; the Yang-tse in the centre ; and 
the Si-kiang in the south. The mouths of these rivers, 
commanding the main routes inland, are accordingly 
of first-rate strategic importance. 

The southern entry is controlled by the British, 
at Hong-Kong. Shanghai, at the mouth of the Yang- 
tse, is held jointly by all the alien Powers, with 
Britain and America predominating ; the Yang-tse 
itself, navigable by gunboats for hundreds of miles 
inland, is in effect a foreign wedge driven into the 
very heart of China. The sea-way in the north is 
controlled by Japan, established first in Korea and 
now also in Manchuria. 

The one practicable land route into China is that 
from the north ; the route by which the Manchus 
entered the country three centuries ago, and for 
control of which Czarist Russia and Japan struggled 
in the years preceding the Great War. It is in this 
area that Japan has accomplished the most recent 
invasion of China. 

Ga 89 



MAP 40 








THE LANDS OF 
THE MONGOLS 


Ever singe the Russo-Japanese War (1904-5) 
Japan has worked steadily to consolidate her position 
on the mainland, and to establish a barrier between 
Russian and Chinese territory. By the setting up of 
the “ independent 35 state of Manchukuo in what 
was the northern Chinese province of Manchuria, 
Japan attained virtual control over enormous 
economic resources, as well as providing herself with 
a safe mainland base for further aggression, north, 
east, or south. 

Japanese agents and troops have been active more 
recently in Inner Mongolia (to the east of Manch- 
ukuo). She already rules over some two million 
Mongols in the Hsingan province of Manchukuo. 
Of the three million other Mongols about a million 
live in Outer Mongolia — a territory half as large as 
the United States, but mostly desert ; another 
million in Inner Mongolia ; while about a million 
are scattered in Chinese Turkestan, in the Kokonor 
province of Tibet, and in the Buriat Republic of 
Asiatic Russia. 


9 * 



MAP 41 



92 






JAPAN AND RUSSIA 


The Japanese hold on Manchuria is a serious 
threat to Russia’s communications with Eastern 
Siberia and its Pacific outlet, Vladivostok (see also 
map 50). The Trans-Siberian railway runs north 
of the Amur river. In 1896 Gzarist Russia made 
an agreement with China by which a shorter rail 
route to Vladivostok was to run across northern 
Manchuria. This was the famous Chinese Eastern 
Railway. After the Revolution the Soviet Govern- 
ment renounced all Russia’s privileges in Manchuria, 
but retained its special rights over this line, and a 
long series of cc incidents ” and diplomatic negotia- 
tions with Japan followed. Finally, the U.S.S.R. has 
sold its rights in the railway to the new state of 
Manchukuo. 

The map also shows the network of railways in 
Manchukuo which have been added by the Japanese 
to the two original trunk lines — the Chinese Eastern, 
and the South Manchurian (Port Arthur-Mukden- 
Chang-chun) . 


93 




94 




THE BREAK-UP OF 
CHINA 


The last three-quarters of a century has 
seen the steady disintegration of the oldest civilised 
state in the world — China. The process began during 
the latter half of the 19th century with pressure 
by Britain, France, and Russia on her outlying ter- 
ritories. Then, just before the end of the century, 
Japan began that process of absorption of the main- 
land territories in the north-east which still con- 
tinues; first Korea, then Manchuria, and more 
recently the northern provinces of China proper and 
of eastern Inner Mongolia, have all come under 
Japanese domination. 

The Nanking Government, now recognised by the 
outside world as the Government of China, exercises 
effective control over the central coastal provinces 
and the lower Yang-tse Valley; and its influence 
is now spreading to the southern provinces around 
Canton, previously controlled by a Council which 
was the heir of Sun-Yat-Sen 5 s original National 
Government. West of these coastal areas, the 
provinces of the interior are largely governed by 
soviets of peasants and workers (customarily des- 
cribed as “ bandits 33 by their opponents). How far 
many of these are inspired by definitely Communist 
ideas is doubtful, but they undoubtedly represent 
genuine revolts of the common people against war- 
lords and landlords. 


95 










THE NANKING 
GOVERNMENT 


The Nanking Government, under Chiang Kai- 
shek, is based upon the central provinces north and 
south of the Yang-tse. The old capital of the Manchu 
Dynasty, Peking, in the north, now lies within the 
Japanese sphere of influence. Chiang Kai-shek’s 
power was originally based on Canton, in the south, 
which had been the centre of Sun-Yat-Sen’s republi- 
can government. Chiang Kai-shek made use of 
the Chinese revolutionary proletarian movement 
until he felt himself strong enough to dispense with 
it. His government is a military dictatorship with 
some constitutional modifications, and the ter- 
ritories over which it exercises control include the 
most industrially developed areas of China. The 
completion of the Hankow-Canton railway has 
made contact between the Yang-tse zone and the 
south much easier. 


97 




g8 






THE NEW RUSSIA 


A world factor of the first importance to-day 
is the new industrialised Russia which the Soviet 
Government has set itself to build up. Pre-war Russia 
was predominantly a land of peasants. Technically 
the country was a century behind the rest of Europe. 
The revolutionary government set itself from the 
outset to alter this, and the Five-Year Plan was the 
first instance in world history of a scheme on a 
colossal scale for the unified organisation and 
development of the entire resources of a nation. 

The map gives in simplified form the main 
economic facts of European Russia. The four chief 
industrial regions are (i) the Ukraine, 1 based on the 
Donetz coalfield and the iron of Krivoi Rog, and 
containing the great electric power station of 
Dnieprostroi ; (2) the central (Moscow) area, with 
mining and manufactures ; (3) the Ural region, the 
minerals of which are being developed in conjunc- 
tion with the Kusnetz coalfield in western Siberia 
(cf ’ map 48) ; and (4) the Leningrad manufacturing 
area. The black earth region is, of course, the richest 
agricultural area. The oilfields of the Caucasus are 
also shown. 

European Russia is divided into twelve economic 
regions, the ad m ini s trative centres of which are 
marked. 


1 See also map 8. 

99 



MAP 45 










POLITICAL DIVISIONS 
OF THE NEW RUSSIA 


The new Russia is not only interesting econom- 
ically. As a federation of partly autonomous states 
it is a political experiment on a gigantic scale. The 
Soviet Government has had to solve a min orities 
problem of extraordinary complexity. The 1926 
census lists 1 74 different races who are citizens of the 
U.S.S.R. The total population is now estimated 
at between 160 and 170 million, more than three- 
quarters of whom live in the European area. 

The Union consists of seven main Federated 
Republics, which include many smaller republics 
and autonomous districts. These are (1) the 
R.S.F.S.R. (Russian Soviet Federated Socialist 
Republics), including most of the European area 
and nearly all Siberia ; (2) the White Russian 
Republic (on the western European frontier) ; (3) 
the Ukrainian Republic ; (4) the Transcaucasian 
Federated Republics ; (5) Tajikistan ; (6) Uzbekis- 
tan, and (7) Turkmenistan — these last three in Asia, 


IOI 









POLITICAL DIVISIONS 
OF EUROPEAN RUSSIA 


Three oe the main Federated Republics of the 
U.S.S.R. lie along the western and south-western 
borders of European Russia : the White Russian 
Republic, the Ukrainian Republic, and the Trans- 
caucasian Federation of Republics (Georgia, 
Armenia and Azerbaijan). 

The remainder of Russian European territory 
forms part of the R.S.F.S.R. (see previous map). 
It includes autonomous republics like the Crimea, 
the Karelian Republic and the German Republic of 
the Volga. Some of these republics contain smaller 
autonomous areas, the whole organisation of the 
Soviet state aiming at a maximum of cultural inde- 
pendence combined with rigid unification of econo- 
mic organisation. 


103 







THE CAUCASUS 


The Caucasus area, between the Black Sea 
and the Caspian, is of enormous economic import- 
ance to Russia by reason of its oilfields. The civil 
war which followed the 1917 revolution lasted in 
this area until 1921. Thenceforward the Soviet 
Government set itself to meet the complicated 
nationalist demands of its inhabitants by an elabor- 
ate patchwork of autonomous republics and districts. 

The political divisions are : (1) the Northern 
Caucasus, a cc region ” of the R.S.F.S.R., with a 
number of small autonomous divisions [cf. map) on 
its southern border ; (2) the autonomous republic of 
Dagestan, on the Caspian coast ; and (3) the Trans- 
caucasian Federation, consisting of the republics of 
Georgia (capital, Tiflis), Armenia (capital, Eiivan) 
and Azerbaijan (capital, Baku). Each of these three 
again includes one or two autonomous regions, 

Ha 105 



OS'COW 


MAP 48 



106 





WESTERN SIBERIA 
AND TURKESTAN 


One of the big features of Russia’s economic 
plan is the development of western Siberia and its 
linking with the European industrial regions. The 
Kusnetz coal basin, though its working has as yet 
barely begun, is estimated to contain some 450 
billion tons — six times as much as the Donetz field 
in the Ukraine. It is to be closely linked with the 
Ural mineral and industrial area. 

South of this area is Turkestan, now sub-divided 
into Kazakstan and various smaller republics {cf, 
next map). This region has been connected with 
Siberia by the Turk-Sib railway, which follows the 
old caravan route from Tashkent northwards. It is 
die longest line constructed in the world during 
recent years. 


107 



MAP 49 







NATIONALITIES IN 
CENTRAL ASIA 


Turkestan was added to the Russian Empire in 
the second half of the 19th century. It was this 
expansion of the Gzarist power, touching Afghanistan 
and approaching the north-western frontier of India, 
which made the “ Russian Bear ” the bogey of all 
good British patriots towards the end of the century. 
Civil warfare after the revolution did not end in this 
region until 1924. 

The political divisions are now : The Kazakstan 
republic, largely peopled by nomad Kirghiz ; the 
autonomous region of the Kara-Kalpaks ; and the 
republic of Turkmenistan, inhabited by Moham- 
medan Turkomans ; Uzbekistan, a cotton-producing 
area with the largest population of the area and the 
three most important cities of Central Asia — Tash- 
kent, Samarkand and Bokhara ; Tajikistan, a moun- 
tainous region — in its eastern part are the Pamirs, 
the “ roof of the world 55 ; and Kirghizia, a land of 
cattle-breeders. 


109 




no 


500 1000 1SOO MZ&f 







CENTRAL ASIAN 
FRONTIERS AND 
AFGHANISTAN 


Afghanistan is the mountain country separ- 
ating Asiatic Russia from northern India. Though, 
as the map shows, it is a country without railways, 
railway lines lead up to its frontiers north and south. 
On the Russian side the Central Asian railway has 
two branches running southward, from Merv and 
from a point west of Samarkand. On the Indian side 
the strategic railways of the N.W. Frontier and 
Baluchistan everywhere stop short of Afghanistan. 
Schemes for linking the two systems by lines running 
across Afghanistan, one through Herat and Kan- 
dahar, and the second through Kabul to Peshawar, 
have so far broken down through Russian-British 
jealousy. 

Present British relations with Afghanistan are 
summarised in a treaty (1921) which recognised the 
full sovereignty of Afghanistan, with certain British 
restrictions on special privileges to Russia, and 
provided for the passage of arms and munitions to 
Afghanistan through India. 


Ill 




1 12 









FAR EASTERN RUSSIA 


The far east of the Siberian territories of the 
U.S.S.R. is now politically divided into the Yakutsk 
republic, the largest in area, most sparsely popu- 
lated, and least explored ; and the Far Eastern Area, 
which includes the whole coast-line from the Arctic 
Ocean down to the port of Vladivostok, with Kam- 
chatka and the northern part of the island of 
Sakhalin (the southern half of which is Japanese). 
Its administrative centre and military base is 
Khabarovsk, on the Amur river. So far — except in 
Sakhalin, where both coal and oil are worked — 
little has been done to exploit the known mineral 
wealth of the region. 

It is this area, of course, whose security is threat- 
ened by the Japanese hold on Manchukuo. Its one 
link with the rest of Russia is the Trans-Siberian 
railway {cf. maps 40 and 41). The second Five- 
Year Plan includes schemes for extensive railway 
building in the Far Eastern Area, and the construc- 
tion of a new port above Vladivostok. 


US 













THE CROSS-ROADS OF 
THE FAR EAST: 
SINGAPORE 


Singapore, Britain’s chief naval base in the Far 
East, stands at the western gateway to the Pacific 
Ocean — as Panama stands at its eastern entrance. 
The trade routes from India and Ceylon to China 
and Japan run through the Straits of Malacca, 
between the Malay Peninsula and the island of 
Sumatra (see also next map). When Sir Stamford 
Raffles annexed Singapore for Britain in 1819 he 
wrote — “ It gives us the command of China and 
Japan, with Siam and Cambodia, to say nothing 
of the islands themselves/’ 

The great naval dockyard now under construction 
there, at an estimated cost of ^g, 000, 000, is to be 
completed in 1939. Naval experts regard it as 
essential for the protection of Australia and New 
Zealand, as well as of Hong-Kong and British 
commercial interests in China. Japan, on the other 
hand, naturally regards the fortification of Singapore 
as a menace to her expansion in Asia. 

Most foreign commentators on international affairs 
assume that there is an understanding between 
Holland and Britain regarding the use of Singapore 
in case of any attack on the Dutch East Indies. 





MAP 53 





BRITISH MALAYA 


British interest in the Malay Peninsula (which 
divides the Indian Ocean from the Pacific) began 
when the East India Company established a station 
at Penang before the end of the 18th century. A few 
years later Malacca, originally a Portuguese trading 
station, was taken over from the Dutch, and Stam- 
ford Raffles founded a British settlement at Singa- 
pore. British rule now extends over the whole 
coast stations 1 — the Straits Settlements — forming 
one British Crown Colony, while the four Federated 
Malay States are subject to British suzerainty though 
ruled by nominally independent sultans, and the 
others are under British protection, with British 
advisers. 

The extension of British control over the interior 
of the peninsula was due to the discovery, some 60 
years ago, of rich tin deposits. At the beginning of 
the present century the production of rubber was 
commenced on a large scale and the result has been 
an industrial revolution which has put Malaya well 
into the modem world picture. Large numbers of 
Chinese and Indian workers were brought into the 
country for the mines and plantations, and these 
now outnumber the Malays. The hinterland of 
Singapore is therefore of very considerable economic 
importance, quite apart from the strategic value of 
the port itself. 

1 One of these, the Dmdings, was retroceded to Perak, a 
Federated State, February 1935. 



MAP 54 





THE PROBLEM OF THE 
INDIAN STATES 


M ost people, until the actual discussion of 
schemes of Indian self-government brought the 
question of the Indian States to the fore, vaguely 
assumed that India was unif ormly under British 
control. Actually, of course, as the discussions have 
emphasised, the Indian peninsula is divided into 
British India, directly administered by the British 
Government of India, and a number of States, some 
of which enjoy full sovereign rights, others being 
subject to the <c advisory jurisdiction 59 of the Govern- 
ment, while many smaller ones possess some degree 
of internal independence limited by a considerable 
measure of Government interference. 

British India includes practically all the coast 
territories, as well as the valleys of the Ganges and 
the Indus. The States vary enormously not only in 
status and powers but in size, Kashmir and Hydera- 
bad having areas of 84,000 and 82,000 square miles 
and populations of 3 million and u\ million respec- 
tively, while many of the smaller States comprise 
only a few acres. 

N.B. la Use map Nepal is shown within the Indian frontier. 
Actually it and the neighbouring small Buddhist State of Bhutan 
are independent allied states, both of which have agreed to conduct 
their external relations by the advice of the Government of India. 





MAP 55 




INDIA: 

THE COMMUNAL 
PROBLEM 


The problem of religious minorities is another of 
the complications which the framers of a new con- 
stitution for India have had to face. Whether it is as 
complex as the opponents of self-government have 
always insisted may be open to question. Indian 
nationalists assert that it is a difficulty which would 
rapidly solve itself if Indians were left to look after 
their own affairs. The centre and south of the pen- 
insula (cf. map) is predominandy Hindu. The great 
mass of Mahommedans are found in the north-west, 
in the Punjab and Sind, while another Mahomme- 
dan area is in lower Bengal. In the Punjab also are 
the Sikhs. Buddhism, which had its birthplace in 
India, is now only dominant over the frontier to the 
north-east in Tibet, and in Ceylon in the south. 
Indian nationalists, both Hindu and Mahommedan, 
are opposed to communal electorates, which, so 
they argue, would accentuate religious differences 
by making them into permanent political divisions. 

Ia 


121 









BURMA: 

SIAM 

Burma, although in tradition and culture a quite 
separate nation from India, was by the Government 
of India Act (1919) administered as part of British 
India. The rise and development of the Nationalist 
movement in India, however, has coincided with the 
growth in Burma of a separationist party, and by the 
new India Bill (1935) Burma henceforth is governed 
by a separate administration. 

Geographically Burma is cut off from India by 
sea, mountain and jungle. Its land frontiers form a 
practically impassable barrier and its communica- 
tions with India are by sea across the Bay of Bengal, 
Rangoon being 700 miles from Calcutta and 1,000 
miles from Madras. 

Slam, lying between Burma and French Indo- 
China, has during the past few years been the scene 
of various political upheavals, culminating in the 
abdication of King Prajadhipok (March 1935). It 
appears highly probable that these political changes 
are the result of the extensive economic penetration 
of Siam by Japan. Siamese foreign trade was up to a 
few years ago dominated by Great Britain and 
Singapore, but between 1931 and 1934 Japanese 
exports to Siam increased more than 500 per cent. 
It has been rumoured that Japan is ready to offer 
financial help to Siam for a canal across the Kira 
is thmu s (see map) which would threaten the naval 
and economic dominance of Singapore. 


123 




124 







TIBET 


Tibet’s geographical position in relation 
to India’s northern frontier makes her government a 
matter of considerable concern to Britain. In 1903-4 
— at the time when the designs of Czarist Russia were 
still regarded in Britain with fear and suspicion — 
the British Government despatched a military 
expedition to the forbidden city of Lhasa and com- 
pelled the Tibetan Government to recognise special 
British interests. After the Chinese revolution (1911) 
China’s suzerainty over Tibet was again asserted ; 
but the recent breakdown of government in China 
enabled Britain, by negotiations with the late Dalai 
Lama, to consolidate her influence. The spiritual 
head of Tibetan Buddhism, the Tashi Lama, who 
took over the Regency a year or two ago, had for 
some years been exiled in China, and his return to 
Tibet may be the signal for the renewal of the 
demand for Tibetan independence. 


125 




126 




INDEPENDENT STATES 
IN AFRICA 


Since the great “ scramble for Africa 59 took place 
during the last two decades of the 19th century, the 
whole of the continent, with the exception of two 
areas, has been divided between the European 
Powers. The two states retaining some measure of 
independence — in each case strictly limited — are 
Egypt and Liberia. 

Ever since, in 1875, the British Government 
bought the Khedive’s shares in the Suez Canal, the 
condition of affairs in Egypt has been a matter of 
primary concern to British Governments. On the 
outbreak of war in 1914 the nominal Turkish 
suzerainty over Egypt was ended and a British 
protectorate established. After the War self-govern- 
ment was granted, but with important reservations. 
The Sudan remained under British control, British 
garrisons were to be maintained in the Canal Zone 
and at Cairo and Alexandria, and Egypt’s foreign 
policy was to be guided by British interests. A new 
treaty (1936) made in response to persistent Egyptian 
demands has resulted in some modification of these 
conditions. 

For Liberia, see map 64. 

127 




128 






GERMANY’S LOST 
POSSESSIONS 
IN AFRICA 


By the post-war Treaties all the German 
colonies in Africa were handed over, for the most 
part as mandates, to the victorious Powers. Togoland 
was divided between Britain and France, the British 
(western portion) now being administered with the 
Gold Coast. A small area of the Gameroons adjoin- 
ing Nigeria went to Britain ; the larger part went to 
France, part of it as a mandated territory, while the 
southern part was definitely ceded, becoming part 
of French Equatorial Africa. German East Africa, 
with the exception of a small area in the north-west 
which was added to the Belgian Congo, went to 
Britain, being re-named Tanganyika Territory. 
German South-West Africa, conquered during the 
War by the forces of the Union of South Africa, was 
handed over by mandate to the Union Government. 
The latter has taken steps to deal with Nazi organi- 
sations and propaganda in the territory. 


129 



MAP 60 







BRITAIN IN AFRICA 


The present century has seen a revolt on the 
part of various Asiatic peoples against European 
domination. There are many signs that that revolt 
will spread to Africa in the near future, and the 
spirit in which the various Colonial Powers handle 
the c< native problem ” will doubtless decide what 
form that revolt takes. 

British possessions are spread over the length and 
breadth of the continent, presenting differing prob- 
lems in different areas. British Africa may be con- 
veniently classified {cf. map) into : (i) West Africa — 
Nigeria, and West Coast Colonies — where the main 
policy followed is that of Indirect Rule. There are 
no white settlers in this region. (2) East Africa , 
including Uganda, Kenya, Tanganyika and Nyasa- 
land. In Tanganyika and Uganda an enlightened 
native policy prevails. In Kenya the presence of a 
considerable number of white settlers has compli- 
cated the problem {cf. later map). (3) South Africa, 
the territories included in the Union of South Africa, 
a self-governing dominion, with a native policy 
based on an absolute denial of the equality of races. 
Between South and East Africa lie the Rhodesias 
{cf. next map) ; and north of the East African 
territories, though geographically quite separate 
from them, is the British Sudan. 









AFRICA 


MAP 62 



134 





THE SOUTH AFRICAN 
PROTECTORATES 


When the Union of South Africa was 
constituted in 1909 three British protectorates — 
Bechuanaland (not to be confused with British 
Bechuanaland, part of Cape territory) , Basutoland, 
and Swaziland, remained directly under the control 
of the home government. The largest of them, 
Bechuanaland, lies along the northern frontier of 
the Union. The two smaller ones are enclaves in 
Union territory. All three have suffered badly from 
administrative neglect during recent years, their 
treatment comparing very unfavourably with that 
of the West African colonies or Tanganyika. 

The Union Government has made a demand for 
the transfer of the three territories to itself, basing 
its claim on a clause in the Act of Union which 
implied the inclusion of the Protectorates in the 
Union at some future date. Native opinion in the 
Protectorates is firmly opposed to the idea of 
transfer. The British Government has compromised 
by refusing actual transfer, but promising <£ closer 
economic co-operation 55 between the administration 
of the territories and the Union. 


135 




136 








BRITISH EAST AFRICA 


As has been already noted, Tanganyika Terri- 
tory, since Britain took over the mandate, has been 
administered on enlightened lines and is, in the 
Africa of to-day, a model of what alien rule can be. 
The history of Kenya Colony has been less fortunate. 
The building of the Uganda railway, connecting 
Uganda with the coast of Mombasa, led to the 
realisation that in the highlands in the west of Kenya 
white settlement was possible. This area comprises 
almost all the good land in the colony. The natives 
have been pushed out of it and placed in reserves, 
which even now are inadequate and must become 
more so as the population increases. The most recent 
happening in Kenya has been the discovery of gold 
within the Kavirondo native reserve near Lake 
Victoria. The Government^ promise to the natives 
that on no account would the reserves be further 
encroached upon was promptly broken, and many 
square miles of territory thrown open to white con- 
cession hunters. The incident is of far more than 
local importance inasmuch as in every part of Africa 
to-day Africans are watching with critical eyes the 
behaviour of their white rulers. 

Ka 137 




138 






LIBERIA 


The Colony of Liberia was founded in 1816, 
mainly through the efforts of the American Colonisa- 
tion Society with the aim of settling free American 
negroes on African soil. In 1847 these negro colonists 
made a declaration of independence and established 
a republic. Civilisation, however, has never extended 
into the interior. Of the 50,000 more or less civilised 
inhabitants of the coastal region some 12,000 are 
of American origin. The population of the interior, 
variously estimated as from three-quarters of a mil- 
lion to 1 J millions, has been on occasion treated by 
its fellow African rulers in a way which can perhaps 
best be summarised as being a good imitation of the 
worst methods of white exploiters in other parts of 
the continent. Recent happenings led to a League 
of Nations enquiry and to a plan involving super- 
vision of the Liberian Government by representa- 
tives of the League. 

The United State has special interests in Liberia. 
In 1918 it advanced a loan to the republic and ap- 
pointed a financial adviser. The economic resources 
of Liberia, moreover, are now largely mortgaged to 
the Firestone Rubber Go., of America, whose con- 
cession covers one million acres of land. There seems 
little doubt that the operations of the company, 
enforcing the plantation system on Liberia, has been 
in part responsible for the evils which the League of 
Nations plan seeks to eradicate. 

m 




140 





THE NEGRO PROBLEM 
IN THE UNITED 
STATES 


The United States has a minorities problem 
of its own to face, and it can hardly be said at the 
moment that the problem is growing easier. There 
are close on 12 million negroes in the United States, 
rather more than 10 per cent of the total population. 
The greatest concentration is, of course, in the 
southern states of the cotton belt. In only one state, 
Mississippi, are the negroes now in an absolute 
majority, but in several others they constitute not 
much less than half of the population. In South 
Carolina, for example, which in 1920 had 55 per 
cent negro population, the figure had fallen to just 
under 50 per cent in 1930 ; and there are areas in 
all the southern states, including Texas, where the 
negroes form a majority. The 1930 census figures 
show a small decline in the rural negro population 
of these states, a decrease doubtless due to the 
northward migration of negroes which began during 
the War. 

Racial feeling in the U.S., despite some signs to 
the contrary, cannot be said to be growing less 
bitter. It is, indeed, somewhat difficult to distinguish 
between the anti-Semitism of Hitler’s Germany and 
the negrophobia of a great part of the United States. 


I 4 I 




142 


\ \ \ \ v* \ N *\ \ v. \ \ 

s 4a\\\t\' \ 

1000 2000 Jsfthbs 





THE UNITED STATES 
AND THE CARIBBEAN 


From the time of the war with Spain (1898) 
United States penetration in the Caribbean area — 
the islands of the West Indies and the smaller 
states of Central America — steadily proceeded. After 
the Spanish War the island of Porto Rico was 
annexed, and Cuba became virtually an American 
protectorate. The new republic of Panama was 
brought under “ general supervision 35 in 1903, the 
United States obtaining permanent rights in the 
Canal Zone. Intervention in Haiti in 1915 led to a 
supervision of Haitian finances ; and in the neigh- 
bouring negro republic of Santo Domingo a receiver- 
ship, amounting to a protectorate, was instituted. 
In 1916 Nicaragua became a virtual protectorate, 
granting exclusive rights in a hypothetical canal to 
die United States. In 1917 certain of the Virgin 
Islands were purchased from Denmark. 

The special United States sphere in the islands is 
flanked north and south (cf. map) by British pos- 
sessions — the Bahamas and Jamaica. 


H3 










CUBA 


By the Platt Amendment (abrogated, May- 
1934) the United States established a protectorate 
over the island of Cuba after the Sp anish- American 
War. The recent Cuban revolution was in part a 
nationalist rising against United States domination ; 
but Cuba’s fundamental grievances are economic. 
The island’s staple product is sugar, and it has been 
the rigid limitation of its exports to the United 
States, in the interests of the American sugar beet 
industry, which has destroyed the foundations of 
Cuba’s economic life. 


145 



MAP 68 










PANAMA AND 
NICARAGUA 


The Spanish- American War had made clear 
the urgent necessity of an inter-oceanic canal through 
the central American peninsula unless the United 
States was to keep a battle fleet in both the Pacific 
and Atlantic Oceans. Panama, formerly a province 
of the republic of Colombia, declared its independ- 
ence on November 3rd, 1903. It was recognised ten 
days later by the United States Government, which 
five days later signed a Treaty with the new republic 
providing facilities for the construction of the 
Panama Canal. The Canal Zone, which extends five 
miles on each side of the canal, was granted in 
perpetuity to the United States. 

In 1916, the Panama Canal having already proved 
inadequate for the sea traffic which used it, the 
United States Government signed a Treaty with 
Nicaragua giving it the option for a canal route (cf. 
map), and a naval base on both the Atlantic and 
Pacific coasts. No work has ever been started on the 
scheme, as it was estimated that the total cost would 
be 700 million dollars, and that a third set of locks 
on the Panama Canal could be constructed for a 
fifth of that sum. American marines, who had been 
in occupation for a considerable period, evacuated 
Nicaragua in January 1933. 


147 















RIVAL INTERESTS IN 
THE PACIFIC 


H aw aii , the half-way house of the Pacific, was 
annexed by the United States in 1898. A few months 
later the Philippine Islands and Guam Island were 
taken over and the United States had become a 
Pacific Power. After the Great War, the German 
Pacific islands north of the Equator [cf. previous 
maps) were handed over as mandates to Japan. 
This brought the Japanese sphere directly across 
the main lines of communication between Panama 
and the Pacific ports of the United States and her 
far eastern possessions. Naval experts have opined 
that the U.S. Navy could not operate effectively more 
than 1,000 miles away from Hawaii. 

The measure of Philippine independence granted 
by the U.S. involves some American control until 
i 945~6. Whether American withdrawal will not 
sooner or later mean Japanese intervention seems 
scarcely doubtful. Japanese dominance in this area 
would presumably be regarded by Britain with some 
apprehension, since it would bring a powerful rival 
much closer to Hong-Kong, Singapore and the oil 
of the Dutch East Indies. 


r 49 



MAP 70 








“ YANQUI 
IMPERIALISM!) ” 

IN LATIN AMERICA 


United States penetration in the Caribbean 
area has been watched with considerable suspicion 
by the Latin American Republics. The Panama 
Canal has, moreover, brought the states of the 
Pacific coast thousands of miles nearer to the eastern 
industrial area of the United States ; and the U.S. 
has tended to re-interpret the Monroe Doctrine as 
giving to itself exclusive rights of intervention in 
South America. 

Latin America is a main battleground of British 
and American commercial and financial interests. 
The battle is fiercest in the Argentine, commercially 
the most developed of the South American countries. 
A British Treaty with the Argentine (1933) gave 
various commercial advantages to Britain ; but over 
the whole of the continent between 1913 and 1927 
Britain’s share of the total South American imports 
dropped from 25 per cent to 16 per cent, while 
that of the United States rose from 24 per cent to 
38 per cent. 









THE BOLIVIA- 
PARAGUAY WAR 


The war between tbe two inland states of South 
America — Bolivia and Paraguay — which began in 
1932, was ended by an armistice signed on June 
I2th, 1935. The area in dispute was the Gran 
Chaco territory. Bolivia, cut off by the Andes from 
easy access to the Pacific, desires direct water com- 
munication down the Paraguay and Parana rivers 
to the Atlantic seaboard. Paraguay, on the other 
hand, claims a considerable area of Bolivian terri- 
tory. Moreover, oil has been discovered in the 
Chaco ; which makes its possession of some im- 
portance. 

At one time Bolivia laid claim to the Tacna- 
Arica area (see map) which would have given her 
direct communication with the Pacific coast ; but 
by the agreement of 1929 this area was divided 
between Peru and Chile. 


La 


153 




154 







BOLIVIA 


Of all the countries of the New World, Bolivia 
ranks second only to the United States and Mexico 
in mineral wealth. She produces a quarter of the 
tin output of the world. Next to China she is the 
world’s chief source of antimony. Silver and lead 
are also mined. Her exports must go across Chilean 
territory to the Pacific ports of Arica and Antofa- 
gasta. Her other possible outlet, via the Paraguay 
river to the Atlantic, is the. present cause of her war 
with Paraguay. The majority of Bolivia’s population 
is native Indian. A recent writer has remarked that 
“ a raw material of great importance to modem 
industry and a primitive, poverty-stricken and 
inarticulate native population are the two basic 
facts of Bolivian economic life . 55 


155 




156 




NATIONALITIES IN 
SOUTH AMERICA 


Europeans usually think of South America as in- 
cluding only one colonial area, that of Guiana, 
divided between British, Dutch and French ; but 
in four of the South American republics — Colombia, 
Ecuador, Peru and Bolivia — the native Indians 
form a majority of the population and, these all 
being mining countries, a source of degradingly 
cheap labour power. In Venezuela and Guiana 
negroes and mulattos constitute a majority. In 
Brazil the proportion of white and Indian inhabit- 
ants is about equal and there is also a very consider- 
able mulatto population. Only in the four republics 
of the temperate zone in the south are the native 
races in a relatively small minority. 


157 



MAP 74 



158 





NEWFOUNDLAND 


The report of a Royal Commission (November, 
I 933) recommended that the dominion of Newfound- 
land should lose its representative institutions for an 
indefinite period of years, its administration to be 
taken over by a Commission appointed by the British 
Government. This course was necessitated by the 
bankruptcy of the Newfoundland Government, and 
the British Treasury had to take over in order to 
avoid Newfoundland default on debt payments. 

The principal industry of the island, which has a 
population of a quarter of a million, is fishing, and 
there are considerable timber resources. The Labra- 
dor coast has always been administered by the 
Newfoundland Government. The actual boundary 
between Labrador and the province of Quebec, in 
Canada, was fixed by the Privy Council in 1927. 
The population of Labrador in 1931 was 4,264. 


159 




INDEX 

to places named in maps 



INDEX 

to places named in maps 




Map No . 

Pages 

Abyssinia . . . 


32 , 34 , 58 

72, 74, 78, 126 

Aden .... 


29, Sh 34 

68, 72, 78 

Adriatic .... 


9 , ii, 13, 14 

28, 32, 36, 38 

Aegean .... 


14, 18, 19, 28 

38, 46, 48, 66 

Afghanistan . 


48-50 

106-110 

Africa .... 


26, 30, 31, 58-64 

62, 70, 72, 126-1 

Africa, British 


59-63 

128-136 

Africa, French . . 


26, 30, 59 

62, 70, 128 

Africa, Italian . 


26, 31 

62, 72 

Africa, South-West . 


59 

128 

Albania .... 


13, 14, 18 

36, 38, 46 

Alsace .... 


1,2,3 

12, 14, 16 

America .... 


65-74 

140-158 

America, South 


70-73 

150-156 

Amur, R. ... 


41,51 

92, 1 12 

Arabia .... 


27 , 29, 33, 34 

64, 68, 76, 78 

Argentine 


70, 73 

150, 156 

Arica .... 


7 i, 72 

152, 154 

Armenia . . 


47 

104 

Asturias .... 


24 

58 

Australia .... 


52, 69 

1 14, 148 

Austria .... 


3, 9-12, 20, 22 

16, 28-34, 50, 54 

Azerbaijan . . 


47 

104 

Bahamas .... 


66, 67 

142, 144 

Baku .... 


32, 44 , 47 

74 , 98 , 104 

Baltic .... 


5, 6 

20, 22 

Baltic States . 


5, 6, 21 

20, 22, 52 

Banat .... 


12, 15, 17 

34, 40, 44 

Barcelona 


24 

58 

Basques .... 


24 

58 

Basutoland . 


62 

134 

Beehuanaland 


62 

134 

Belgium .... 


1, 2, 25 

12, 14, 60 

Bessarabia . . . 


5 , 8, 17 

20, 26, 44 



INDEX 


Bolivia . . 




Map JVb. 

71-73 

Pages 

152-156 

Borneo . 




52 

114 

Brazil . , 




73 

156 

Brenner . . 




10 

3° 

Briey . . 




3 

16 

Bukovina 




8, 17 

26,44 

Bulgaria . . 




17, 18, 20 

44, 46, 50 

Burgenland . 




12 

34 

Buriat Rep. . 




40,51 

90, 1 12 

Burma . • 




52, 56 

1 14, 122 

Cameroons . 




30, 59 

70, 128 

Canton . . 




39> 42 

88, 94 

Caribbean . 




66, 68 

142, 146 

Caroline Is. . 




38, 69 

86, 148 

Catalonia 




24 

58 

Caucasus 




32, 44 ) 47 

74, 98, 104 

Czechoslovakia 




*> 3 , 4 ) 8, 9, n. 

12, 16, 18, 26, 28, 

Chile . . 




12, 16, 20-22 
71-73 

32, 34, 42, 50-54 
152-156 

China . . 




37-43 

84-96 

Chinese Eastern 

Rly. 


4i 

92 

Colombia 




73 

156 

Congo, Belgian 




61 

132 

Corridor, The 




i>4 

12, 18 

Crete . . 




26 

62 

Croatia . . 




12, 15 

34.40 

Cuba . . 




66, 67 

142, 144 

Cyprus . . 




26^28 

62-66 

Dagestan . 




47 

104 

Dalmatia 




i3> 15 

36,40 

Danube . . 




9, 11, 12, 14, 16- 

28, 32, 34> 38, 42- 

Danzig 




18, 21, 22 

3> 4 

48, 52, 54 

12, 16, 18 

Dedeagach . 




18 

46 

Dnieprostroi . 




8,44 

26,98 

Dobmdja 




17, 18 

44) 4® 

Dodecanese . 




19 

48 

Donetz . . 




8,44 

26, 98 


163 



INDEX 


Drin R 

Dutch East Indies . 

Ecuador . . 

Egypt .... 
Elbe, R. . 

Eritrea .... 
Estonia .... 
Eupen .... 

Finland .... 
Fiume .... 
Formosa .... 
France .... 
Fukien .... 

Gdynia .... 
Georgia .... 
Germany 

German Rep. of Volg; 
Gibraltar 

Gran Chaco . . . 

Greece .... 
Guiana .... 
Guiana, British . 

Haifa .... 
Haiti .... 
Hankow .... 
Hawaii .... 
Hejaz .... 
Holland .... 
Hongkong 
Hungary 

India .... 

Indo-China, French 

Iran 

Iraq .... 

Ireland .... 
Italy .... 


Map No. 

. 14 

• 37. 52. 69 

• 73 

• 26, 27, 58 
. 22 

• 3 1 , 32, 34 

. 5, 6, 21 

1 

• 5 j 21 

■ 9> 13, 14 

• 38, 52 

• 2, 3, 26, 30 

• 42, 43 

. 4 

• 47 
1-4, 10 

. 46 

. 26 

• 7i 

. 14, 19, 20, 26 

• 73 

. 66, 73 

• 32, 34s 35 

. 66, 67 

• 43 

. 69 

- 27, 33 

. 2, 25 

• 3 7-39 » 42, 52 

. 9, 11, 12, 16, 20, 

22 

- 29, 50, 54-57 

• 37 

(See Persia) 

• 27-29, 32-34, 36 

• 23 

. 9, 10, 13, 20, 26 

164 


Pages 

38 

84, 1 1 4, 148 
156 

62, 64, 126 
54 

72 , 74 > 78 
20, 22, 52 
12 

20, 52 
28, 36, 38 
86, 1 14 
14, 16, 62, 70 
94 * 98 

18 

104 

12-18, 30 
102 
62 
152 

38, 48, 50, 62 
156 

142, 156 

74, 80 
142, 144 
96 
148 
64, 76 
14, 60 

84-88, 94, 1 14 
28, 32, 34, 42, 50 , 1 

68, no, 118-124 
84 

64-68, 74-78, 82 

58 

28, 30, 36, 50, 62 



INDEX 


Jamaica . 



Map No. 

66, 67 

Pages 

142, 144 

Japan . . . 



37-4i> 5L 69 

84-92, 1 12, 148 

Jibuti 



32, 34 

74, 78 

Katanga 



61 

132 

Kavirondo . 



63 

136 

Kazakstan 



46, 48, 49 

102, 106, 104 

Kenya 



60, 63 

130, 136 

Kirghiz Rep. 



49 

108 

Kirkuk 



32, 34 

74, 78 

Korea 



38-41 

86-92 

Krivoi Rog . 



8 

26 

Kurds 



27 

64 

Kusnetz . 



48 

106 

Labrador 



74 

158 

Latvia 



5, 6, 20, 21 

20, 22, 50, 52 

Leningrad 



5, 6, 22, 44 

20, 22, 54, 98 

Libau 



6 

22 

Liberia . 



58. 64 

126, 138 

Libya 



3i 

72 

Lithuania 



1, 4-7, 20, 21 

12, 18-24, 5^ 52 

Little Entente 



11 

32 

Lorraine 




I2-l6 

Luxembourg 



2, 3 

14, l6 

Macedonia . . 



18, 19 

46, 48 

Malacca, Straits of 



53 

Il6 

Malay Peninsula 



53 

Il6 

Malm6dy 

% 


1 

12 

Malta 



26 

62 

Manchukuo . 



37-41, 51 

84-92, 1 12 

Marshall Is. . 



3 8 > 6 9 

86, 148 

Mediterranean . 



26, 29 

62,68 

Memel Land 



i, 3> 4> 8 

12, l6, l8, 22 

Mongolia 



37, 4°, 57 

84,90, 124 

Mongolia, Inner 



40, 41 

90*92 

Morocco 



26, 30 

62,70 

Moscow . 



44 

98 

Mosul 



32,34 

74,78 


165 



INDEX 


Map JVb. 


Pages 


Nanking . - 




39, 42 5 43 

88, 94, 96 

Nejd . . 




33 

76 

Newfoundland 




74 

158 

Nicaragua . 




66, 68 

142, 146 

Nyas aland . 




6i 

132 

Oder . . 




22 

54 

Pacific . . 




66, 68-70 

142, 146-150 

Palestine . . 




26, 27, 32, 35 

62, 64, 74, 80 

Pamirs 




50 

no 

Panama . 




66, 68-70 

142, 146-150 

Paraguay 




71-73 

152-156 

Perim Is. 




34 

78 

Persia 




29, 32, 3 6 , 5o 

68, 74, 82, no 

Persian Gulf . 




29* 32, 33 ) 36 

68, 74, 76, 82 

Peru . . 




73 

156 

Philippines . 




37, 38, 52, 69 

84, 86, 1 14, 148 

Poland . 




i* 4s 5, 7-9, 16, 
20, 21 

12, 18, 20, 24-28 
42, 50, 52 

Port Arthur . 




38, 40 

86, 90 

Porto Rico . 




66 

142 

Portugal . . 




24 

58 

Prussia, East 




U 7 

12, 24 

Red Sea 




29, 3i, 33, 34 

68, 72, 76, 78 

Reval 




6 

22 

Rhine 




2, 3, 22 

14, 16, 54 

Rhineland 




2 

14 , 

Rhodes . 




i9,3i 

48, 72 

Rhodesia 




60, 61 

130, 132 

Riga . . 




6 

22 

Ruhr . , 




2 

14 

Rumania 




5, 8, 9, 11, 12, 17, 
20 

20, 26, 28, 32, 34 
44,50 

Russia 




(See U.S.S.R.) 


Ruthenia 




16 

42 

Saar . . 




i-3 

12-16 

Sahara « . 




30 

70 

Sakhalin 

. 


. 

38, 51 

86, 112 


166 



INDEX 



Map No . 

Pages 

Salonika .... 

14, 18 

38.46 

Santo Domingo . 

66, 67 

142, 144 

Save, R. ... 

14 

38 

Scheldt .... 

25 

60 

Schleswig . . 

1 

12 

Shanghai 

37> 39) 42 9 43 

84, 88, 94, 96 

Shantung 

38.43 

86,96 

Siam ..... 

56 

122 

Siberia .... 

48 

106 

Siberia, Far Eastern 

5i 

1 12 

Silesia .... 

1, 4, 16 

18, 42 

Singapore 

37> 52, 53 

84; 114, 1 16 

Smyrna .... 

19, 28 

48^66 

Somaliland, French 

3U34 

72,78 

Somaliland, Italian 

3^32 

72,74 

South Africa, Union of 

60, 62 

130, 134 

Spain .... 

24 

58 

Straits Settlements . 

53 

116 

Straits, The . 

26, 28 

62, 66 

Sudan .... 

29, 3 1) 32, 60 

68, 72, 74 ) 130 

Suez .... 

26, 27, 29 

62, 64, 68 

Swaziland 

62 

134 

Switzerland . 

22 

54 

Syria ..... 

• 34 

78 

Tacna-Arica . . 

* 7 U 72 

152, 154 

Tajik Rep. . . . 

* 49 

108 

Tanganyika Terr. . 

* 59) 6 3 

128, 136 

Tangier .... 

* 30 

70 

Tel Aviv .... 

• 35 

80 

Teschen .... 

. 16 

42 

Thrace .... 

. 19 

48 

Tibet .... 

- 5 <b 57 

no, 124 

Togoland . . . 

- 59 

128 

Transcaucasian Reps. 

. 46, 47 

102, 104 

Transjordan . . . 

. 27, 33) 35 

64,76,80 

Trans-Siberian Rly. 

. 40, 41, 51 

90,92, 112 

Transylvania 

. 12, 17 

34)44 

Trentino .... 

. 9, 10 

28, 30 

Trieste • • 

* 9) 13 

28, 36 



INDEX 


Map No . Pages 

Turkey ..... 29, 26-28 48, 62-66 

Turkestan, Chinese . . 4g, 57 108, 124 

Turkmen Rep. ... 49 108 

Turk-Sib RIy. ... 48 106 

Uganda 63 136 

Ukraine 3, 7, 8, 44, 46 16, 24, 26, 98, 102 

Ukraine, Polish ... 7, 8 24, 26 * 

Ural Region .... 44, 48 98, 106 

U.S.A. . . .. . . 65, 66, 69, 70 140, 142, 148, 150 

U.S.A., Negroes in . . 65 140 

U.S.SJR. . . ; . . 5, 7, 8, 26, 28, 32, 20, 24, 26, 62, 66, 

36-38* 44-51 74* 82-86, 98-112 

Uzbek Rep. ... 49 108 

Valona ..... 13 36 

Vardar 14 38 

Venezuela .... 73 156 

Vilna 6, 7 22, 24 

Virgin Is 66 142 

Vistula 4, 22 1 8, 54 

Vladivostok . ... . 38,40,41,51 86,90.92,112 

White Russian Rep. 46 102 

Yakutsk Rep. ... 51 112 

Yang-tse . . . . 39, 42 88, 94 

Yap Is. ..... 38 86 

Yemen 3U 33* 34 72,76,78 

Yugo-Slavia . . . 9, 1 1-15, 20 28, 32-40, 50 

Zara 1 g 36 


Zara 1 3 36